Art & Humanitites
This is not a syllabus. The following course outline is to be used as a general guideline only.
-- Items listed below may or may not have been discussed in class, but should help contextualize information.
-- The dates represented below are general markers, not all historians agree on the exact dates of each period and the course
PPTs may differ slightly from what is listed below.
-- Images above require memorization.
PREHISTORIC ART circa 30,000 BCE to 2,500BCE
Focus on survival - food, fertility.
1. Cave paintings at Lascaux and Chauvet (France) and Altamira (Spain)
2. Portable objects such as "Women/Venus of Willendorf"
3. Absence of building/nomadic.
Semi-permanent structures such as mammoth bone huts in Mezhyrich, Ukraine
Permanent structures such as "Stonehenge" in Sailsbury Plain, England. Dolman. Barrow.
All eras above were likely shamanistic/animist.
Clapping, stomping, archaeoacustics, drumming, flute
-- HISTORY begins --
MESOPOTAMIA (3500 BCE - 539 BCE)
Focus on displays of power.
Permanent structures such as ziggurat of Ur in modern day Iraq. Objects found in "The Great Death Pit".
War, power, and narration as relief/wall friezes such as those found in King Ashurbanipal's palace per "The Lion Hunt."
Use of cuneiform by Sumerians.
"Epic of Gilgamesh" by unknown = oldest written story, circa 2,000 bye. Gilgamesh likely lived in Uruk.
Cities and kingdoms were believed to be protected by individual gods and it was the duty of the ruler to act on the god's behalf, building temples and performing ceremonies to gain their blessings. Each person had his or her own personal gods (male and female).
EGYPTIAN ART (3100 BCE to 30 BCE)
Focus on the afterlife.
Old Kingdom: "Palette of Narmer", sarcophagus, Evolution of the pyramids.
New Kingdom: Valley of the Kings
Egyptians wrote using hieroglyphics. Important texts include: "The Book of the Dead"
"The Rosetta Stone" helped us decipher hieroglyphics.
Evidence of clapping and use of musical instruments such as: harps, pan/flutes, rattles (sistrum), lyres and percussion instruments
The Egyptian pantheon consisted of a wide range of gods and goddesses. Many were represented with the heads of animals and birds. Most people only participated in the religious activities at temples during festivals; they were not allowed into the temples in which the king and priests performed daily rituals to maintain the balance of the universe. Instead, ordinary people worshipped chosen gods in household shrines, and made special appeals to them in times of crisis.
Pharaohs as god-kings. From King Narmer (3100 BCE) to King Tut (1332 - 1323 BCE) to Cleopatra (30 BCE)
GREECE (850 BCE - 31 CE)
Focus on Greek ideals of balance and proportion.
1. Archaic pots, sculptures (kourus/kore) and orders (Doric and Ionic).
2. Classical sculptures (statues: Myron, Polyclitus, Praxiteles) and architecture such as the "Parthenon" in Athens, Greece.
3. Hellenistic sculptures ("Nike/Winged Victory", "Aphrodite of Knidos," and "Lacoon and Sons") and Corinthian order.
Classical: Plato's "The Republic" and Aristotle's "Poetics".
[Educated philosophers begin to question religion.]
Classical Drama: tragedy (Sophocles), comedy (Aristophanes)
Tragedy, comedy, and satyr plays were the theatrical forms.Tragedy and comedy were viewed as completely separate genres. Satyr plays dealt with the mythological subject in comic manner. Helpful link: http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/
Pipes, lyres, drums, cymbals.
-- The word “music” itself comes from the Greek Muses. Some Greek words that became English words are “rhythmos,” our word “rhythm”, and “melos” which is “melody.
-- Basic music theory emerges - Pythagorous developed musical tuning system.
The Greeks believed in a number of major gods who were thought to live on Mount Olympus, but there were also many other lesser deities and also very minor spirits, for example the many nymphs that lived in streams and even individual trees and mountains. Worship of gods and goddesses took place in formal sanctuaries, which usually contained a temple in which the god was thought to live. Worship took place outside the temple and/or in places or shrines in the countryside, city or home.
ROME (500 BCE - 476 CE)
Focus on realism and constructing infrastructure (to access and assert authority over vast area of control). Concrete. Arches.
Busts, reappropriated Greek art, triumphal arches, the Pantheon and Colosseum in Rome, Italy. Art used as propaganda (sculpture of Augustus, for example).
• Old Testament (ca. 1000 BC-0)
• New Testament (ca. 0-100)
Brass instruments emerge.
Polytheistic to monotheistic.
The Romans had gods and goddesses similar to many of the Greek gods and goddesses. For example, Greek Athena had similar attributes as Roman Minerva. Romans worshipped gods inside of temples and many families had shrines inside their homes. The emperors likened themselves to God/Kings.
-- Some of these old beliefs changed when Christianity was made the official religion of the Roman Empire by the Emperor Constantine in the 4th century AD.
Middle Ages - ROMANESQUE (500 CE - 1400 CE)
Focus on art used to educate illiterate society about Christianity.
Early Christian (ca. 200-500)
• church designs (basilica > Latin cross & central plan)
• earliest churches (Old St Peter's, Santa Sabina)
[Note: Byzantine Hagia Sophia]
Carolingian (Palatine Chapel)
Romanesque style (example: Vezelay Abbey), tympanum, pilgrimage, relic, reliquary
Crude musical notation approximated pitch.
Illuminated manuscripts such as "Book of Kells" and "Lindisfarne Gospel"
[Note: it is likely that the "Koran" was written between c. 609 - 632.]
The Catholic Church was the only church in Europe during the Middle Ages.
Church leaders such as bishops and archbishops sat on the king's council and played leading roles in government. Bishops, who were often wealthy and came from noble families, ruled over groups of parishes called "diocese." Parish and village priests tended to the sick and indigent and, if he was able, taught Latin and the Bible to the youth of the village.
Viking Raids (793–1066); Battle of Hastings (1066); Crusades I–IV (1095–1204); Black Death (1347–1351); Hundred Years' War (1337–1453)
Characteristics of Gothic architecture (upward, ribbed vaults, stained glass/rose window, spires/decoration, flying buttress, pointed arch,
gargoyles/grotesques/chimeras). Use this link to help explain these terms: http://www.exploring-castles.com/characteristics_of_gothic_architecture.html
-- Circa 1140 - 1144 Saint-Denis embodies the first use of large areas of glass. The High Gothic phase of architecture was ushered in by the Cathedral of Chartres, begun after 1194 and followed in rapid succession by the cathedrals of Bourges, Reims, Amiens, and Beauvais.
-- Notre Dame of Paris (France).
-- Visuals adorned churches in the form of stained glass and high relief on walls - including in the tympanums and FACADES. This video explains it: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FBwrcowWOGc
RENAISSANCE (1400 - 1550 CE)
Focus on rebirth of classical ideas.
We begin to know the name of individual artists.
Renaissance = "rebirth"
Rebirth = new exposure to old ideas (Roman/Greek art, myths and philosophies)
-- "Brunilleschi's Dome" in Florence, Italy.
Proto: Giotto, Ghiberti, Donatello, Botticelli, Masaccio
High: Michelangelo, Leonardo, Raphael (Durer in Germany)
Late: Giambologna, Titan (El Greco in Spain)
Polyphonic vocals (sacred and secular)
Precise staff notation for pitch and rhythm
During the Renaissance, in Florence, Italy, a small group of wealthy artists, statesmen, writers, and musicians, called the Florentine Camerata, gathered to discuss how to revive and transform Greek drama. They favored heightening the text by creating the solo melody or monody which would enhance natural speech. Jacopo Peri (1561-1633), composed the first acknowledged opera, "Dafne", in the late 1590s.
Early ballet began to form and became fashionable in wealthy Italian families, however, the first ballet company was French (ballet terminology of today reflects that origin.)
Gutenberg invents movable type (1447); Turks conquer Constantinople (1453); Columbus lands in New World (1492); Martin Luther starts Reformation (1517)
BAROQUE (1600 - 1750 CE)
Focus on splendor for God, art used to bring religion to the people.
High: Bernini, Rubens, Rembrandt
- St. Peter's Cathedral
Vivaldi (strings). Example: "Four Seasons"
Baroque opera flourished in the royal courts and opera houses in Europe with the Italian school at the fore. Handel’s operas dominated the landscape in England.
Thirty Years' War between Catholics and Protestants (1618–1648)
NEO-CLASSICAL/ROMANTIC (1750 - 1850)
Romantic: Delacroix, Constable, Turner
Architecture in the style of Greek temples (United States emerging - it built governmental buildings largely in the neoclassical style).
Victor Hugo ("Les Miserables"), Goethe
[Tolstoy, Dickens, Twain, Wordworth, Whitman]
Classical: Mozart, Beethoven
Opera developed by expanding in structure, harmony, and plot content. The orchestra played a more important role in providing harmonic depth and variety to accompaniments. Haydn composed over 75 operas as entertainment for the Esterhazy court.
- Romantic: Beethoven (early), Chopin, Strauss, Schubert, Mendelssohn, Brams, Schumann
- Beginning of ballet and opera as we know it.
Enlightenment (18th century); Industrial Revolution (1760–1850)
American Revolution (1775–1783); French Revolution (1789–1799); Napoleon crowned emperor of France (1803)
GISELLE MADNESS SCENE
4:32 - 5:32: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xi5GYXREeXQ
4:15 - 5:15: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tH-R7bOIjVk
40:03 - 41:03: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TTVmfL1nIXU