ART 393

Philosophies in Art Education


This is not a syllabus.






Online dialog is required via Canvas announcements.


Founded in 1947, the National Art Education Association (NAEA) is the leading professional membership organization exclusively for visual arts educators. All EWU art education majors and minors must be members of the NAEA.  Please join this organization this week.


EFLAND textbook.


This week's focus is on the Western origins of art education (Renaissance - Modernity).  Begin reading on page 22 under "Art Education in the Guilds" title and end on page 40 after completing the paragraph that started on page 39.  


Keys words to know/define:  Patron, apprenticeship, masterpiece, guild vs. academy, treatise (and philosophies of), art vs. craft, propaganda

WEEK THREE: READ & RESPOND. The Invention of Common School Art

Efland Textbook, pg. 73 - 111


In the early decades of the nineteenth century,  the trend to establish state-supported schooling is referred to as the common school movement.  At this time in history, who/what determined what might be important things to learn in school?  When and why was drawing brought to public schools in the USA -- and how did Horace Mann influence drawing instruction?  What role did Walter Smith play in the future field of "art education"?  

WEEK FOUR: READ & RESPOND. Stages of Drawing

Creative and Mental Growth 
In 1947, Viktor Lowenfeld publishes Creative and Mental Growth, which becomes tremendously influential in the latter half of the twentieth century. Widely adopted by elementary schools throughout the United States, the book describes the developmental stages of the child, explores child art, and assigns appropriate art activities for each stage of development.


The basic core of Lowenfeld's development stage theory is still intact, though one might notice a few anomalies when comparing authors.  For this week's assignment, please carefully read the attached article titled, "Young in Art a developmental look at child art," by Craig Roland.  Note the following vocabulary terms:  random vs. controlled scribbling, tadpole people, schema, baseline, x-ray drawing.



WEEK FIVE: READ & RESPOND. History of Elements & Principles of Design.

The elements and principles of design are the key terms used in the field of art, however, one might notice anomalies in the lists of vocabulary terms. This article explains the origins and evolution of these words.  


Accessing JSTOR is an important skill for students and researchers.  Please find the following paper in JSTOR to complete this assignment:  Kim, N. (2006). A History of Design Theory in Art Education. Journal of Aesthetic Education, 40(2), 12-28.

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1.  Visual Thinking Skills coupled with defining Visual Literacy.

Visual Thinking Strategies, it is an inquiry-based teaching method developed by Abigail Housen and Philip Yenawine more than twenty years ago and used in museums and school classrooms across the country. 



Visual literacy.

At the Toledo Museum of Art, visual literacy is defined as being able to read, comprehend, and write visual language  --  why is this important for today's "digital natives?"  This museum has a good online collection of information about this topic.



2.  The Reggio Emilia approach.

The Reggio Emilia approach is an educational philosophy focused on preschool and primary education. It was developed after World War II by a psychologist Loris Malaguzzi, and parents in the villages around Reggio Emilia in Italy.

Starter RESOURCE:  and


3.  Art Integration

Define art integration, discuss what makes a strong integration program and ways/means of implementing it into a school/classroom.  



4.  Special Education in the Classroom


Archived NAEA webinar: 




1.  Creativity.

a.  Define creativity.

b.  What is Irving A. Taylor's Creativity pyramid?  Provide examples.
c.  What specific things can be measured to assess creativity?
d.  What are Torrence Tests?
e.  What are some example of creativity tests:
f.  Decline of creativity in the USA (article):
g.  Find and discuss Marvin Bartel's "Creativity Killers" 
h.  Sir Kenneth Robinson
2.  Mindfulness and Art Making.
What is "mindfulness" and how might it be implemented in an art class? How might mindfulness benefit humans, learning, and creativity?
View archived NAEA webinar:  "Mindfulness, creativity and education":
3.  ART Education Super Stars
Research the biographies, important texts/papers, philosophies, and/or significant contribution's to the field of art education of the scholars listed below.  (Pick at least four people to introduce us to.)
Peter London, holistic and spiritual art education.
George Szekely, play and childhood art.
Arthur Efland,
Elliot Eisner,
The Getty Center, and Discipline-Based Art Education movement of the 1980's
ART391 researchers may also choose to research the work by any author listed in the NAEA Resource Catalogs listed at the bottom of this link:

4.  Documenting student growth and assessment

What are the National Core Art Standards?  How do we assess learning? What are some tools available to do so?

Starter RESOURCEes.


Archived NAEA webinar:

1.  Neuroscience and art.
a.  Betty Edwards, "Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain."
b.  How visual arts influence cognition.
2.  Design Thinking
Define and discuss the growth of the "STEM" vs. "STEAM" movement to understand how creativity and critical thinking responds to this.  What is DIY? Prototyping?  The Creative Economy?  The Conceptual Age?  Convergent vs. divergent thinking?  Collaboration?  Improv?
Starter RESOURCE:  
View archived NAEA online webinar:
3.  Abigail Housen's  "Aesthetic Development"
Who are Abigail Housen and some researchers who inspired her work?  What is aesthetic development?  What are the five stages of it?  What are examples of each stage?  How do teachers lead students through aesthetic development?  

4.  The Conceptual Age.

What is the Conceptual Age?  Who is Daniel Pink?  What is the premise behind his book/speech “A Whole New Mind?”  Why are Right-Brain abilities important in the Conceptual Age?

Starter RESOURCE:  Check out book and DVD from Jodi.

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